Altered serotonin innervation patterns in the forebrain of monkeys treated with (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine seven years previously: factors influencing abnormal recovery
by
Hatzidimitriou G, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA
Department of Neurology,
The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions,
Baltimore,
Maryland 21205, USA.
J Neurosci 1999 Jun 15; 19(12):5096-107


ABSTRACT

The recreational drug (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a potent and selective brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin in animals and, possibly, in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether brain 5-HT deficits persist in squirrel monkeys beyond the 18-month period studied previously and to identify factors that influence recovery of injured 5-HT axons. Seven years after treatment, abnormal brain 5-HT innervation patterns were still evident in MDMA-treated monkeys, although 5-HT deficits in some regions were less severe than those observed at 18 months. No loss of 5-HT nerve cell bodies in the rostral raphe nuclei was found, indicating that abnormal innervation patterns in MDMA-treated monkeys are not the result of loss of a particular 5-HT nerve cell group. Factors that influence recovery of 5-HT axons after MDMA injury are (1) the distance of the affected axon terminal field from the rostral raphe nuclei, (2) the degree of initial 5-HT axonal injury, and possibly (3) the proximity of damaged 5-HT axons to myelinated fiber tracts. Additional studies are needed to better understand these and other factors that influence the response of primate 5-HT neurons to MDMA injury and to determine whether the present findings generalize to humans who use MDMA for recreational purposes.

Mood
History
Serotonin
MDMA/MDE
Controversies
Protect and survive
Serotonin-releasers
Dorsal raphe neurons
The serotonin syndrome
Para-chlorophenylalanine
Ecstasy and the pineal gland
Ecstasy and serotonin synthesis
Ecstasy: long-term cognitive deficits?
Post-E serotonergic axonal resprouting
MDMA and serotonin transporter densities


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